Antonia Chayes

Borderless Wars

Civil-Military Disorder and Legal Uncertainty



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Read an exerpt in the
Fletcher Security Review

Harvard Law School
National Security Journal
Volume 6 Issue I • 2015
Rethinking Warfare: The Ambiguity of Cyber Attacks

by Antonia Chayes

Estonia is a highly-wired society, but its ability to function as such was nearly brought to a halt in less than one month because of three cyber attack waves between April 26 and May 18, 2007, most likely perpetrated by Russian agents. This attack, together with subsequent attacks in other countries, represents a grey area between war and peace, raising novel issues about civil-military roles and the inadequacy of current domestic and international legal frameworks.  (read more)


The European Journal of International Law
Vol. 24 no. 1 • 2013
Is Jus Post Bellum Possible? Antonia Chayes
This article addresses the question whether victory in war implies a post-conflict obligation to rebuild the vanquished society after war. And, if it does, what is the nature of that obligation? Is it legal, or moral, or a practical necessity for self-protection of the intervening international community?

Recent Publications


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MIT Press Journals
International Security
Summer 2008 • Vol. 33, No. 1, Pages 45-81
How American Treaty Behavior Threatens National Security

In recent years, American treaty behavior has produced growing concern among both allies and less friendly nations. On such fundamental issues as nuclear proliferation, terrorism, human rights, civil liberties, environmental disasters, and commerce, the United States has generated confusion and anger abroad. Such a climate is not conducive to needed cooperation in the conduct of foreign and security policy.

The Fletcher Forum
“Security in an Age of Anxiety” : What Can Verification Offer?
Antonia Chayes 
Arms control and disarmament agreements are, by their nature, permeated with distrust. This is as true now as it was during the Cold War. The would-be violator needs to be deterred. The complier needs reassurance in such a sensitive area as national security. Both objectives seemed achievable during the Cold War, although on a very limited basis. Verification supplied some measure of reassurance and deterrence at opposite ends of the spectrum for many years of arms control agreements. But neither reassurance nor deterrence is fully relied upon in the post–September 11 world, nor can they be. Therefore, the task of verification has become far more complex and demanding, throwing the entire notion of effectiveness of arms control and reduction regimes into question.

Global Governance 3
p.p. 117-145 • 1997
Beyond Reform: Restructuring for More Effective Conflict Intervention
Antonia Handler Chayes, Abram Chayes, George Raach

The Atlantic Monthly • November 1971
Disarmed at Middle Age
by Antonia Chayes

        Books include:

  • Antonia Chayes and Martha Minow, Eds Imagine Coexistence: Restoring Humanity After Violent Conflict (San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass 2003)
  • Chayes and Chayes Planning for Intervention: International Cooperation in Conflict Management (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 1999).
  • Chayes, Chayes, Arbatov, and Olson, eds. Preventing Conflict in the Former Soviet Union (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1997). Chayes and
  • Chayes, eds. Preventing Conflict in the Post-Communist World: Mobilizing International and Regional Organizations (Washington, DC: Brookings, 1996).
  • Chayes and George T. Raach, eds., Peace Operations: Developing and American Strategy (Washington, DC: National Defense University Press, 1995
  • Chayes and Chayes, The New Sovereignty: Compliance with International Regulating Agreements (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995).
  • Chayes and Doty, eds. Defending Deterrence: Managing the ABM Treaty Regime Into the 21st Century (New York, NY: Brassey's, 1989).
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